Book Contents


The Azolla Story contents

Many of the book’s chapters have short stories (shown in brackets) that transport the reader to different times and places.

A note to readers and time travellers: you can read this here…

Imagine: you can read this here…


Chapter 1: The journey begins (Northern Canada 49 million years ago)

Chapter 2: The North Pole tells its story (Tromsø, northern Norway 7 August 2004)

Chapter 3: Deep Time (Off the coast of Nova Scotia 30 August 1980)

Chapter 4: A Meeting of the Minds (South America 66 million years ago)

Chapter 5: The Burning Land (Northern Scotland 56 million years ago.)

Chapter 6: The Arctic Azolla Event (The Arctic 49 million years ago)

Chapter 7: The Perfect Marriage (The Earth three and a half billion years ago)

Chapter 8: The Azolla Superorganism (Utrecht 8 May 2007)

Chapter 9: The Evolution of a Superorganism (Duke University 2014)

Chapter 10: The Fossil Evidence (Montana May 1805)

Chapter 11: A Superorganism is Born (North America 80 million years ago)

Chapter 12: The Third Event (Chicago 16 June 1957)


Chapter 13: The East discovers Azolla (Tianluoshan,China, 6900 years ago)

Chapter 14: Worshipped in the east (Northern India 973 years after the birth of the Buddha, 410 AD)

Chapter 15: The West discovers Azolla (Tahiti April 1768)




Chapter 16: The Perfect Storm (East Africa October 1999)

Chapter 17: Dead Zones (Tianluoshan, China, the Year of the Pig, 2007)

Chapter 18: Azolla’s purification of water

Chapter 19: Azolla: superorganism or weed? (Lisbon 24 April 1993)

Chapter 20: Azolla as a Biofertilizer

Chapter 21: Azolla as a Livestock Feed

Chapter 22: Saving the mangroves

Chapter 23: Azolla-rice-duck-loach cultivation

Chapter 24: Azolla the Mosquito Fern

Chapter 25: Azolla for food and BMAA mitigation

Chapter 26: The Azolla Germplasm Collection (The Philippines 17 July 2014)

Chapter 27: Cryopreservation of Azolla

Chapter 28: Azolla as a Biofuel (Antwerp 29 September 1913: the unexplained death of Rudolph Diesel)

Chapter 29: Carbon Capture and Storage

Chapter 30: Growing and Harvesting Azolla (Northern India 2019)

Chapter 31: The Azolla Foundation and Hope 4 Ebola Orphans Sierra Leone (The Ebola epidemic, Sierra Leone 2014)

Chapter 32: A man on a mission (Ecuador July 2020)

Chapter 33: Azolla’s role in space (Salyut-6 space station 23 July 1980)

Chapter 34: The Azolla Biosystem

Chapter 35: The Azolla Hub

Chapter 36: The Importance of Nature

Chapter 37: Does it all sound too simple?




Chapter 38: A message from the future (The Mackenzie Delta 2120)

Appendix A: Participants of Utrecht University’s 2007 meeting of the DARWIN Azolla Project.

Bibliography (629 references, all with live links to their websites)

Glossary (Definition of 203 terms linked to the text)



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